Serving Size: 1 Rounded Scoop (8.2 Grams)
Servings Per Container: 60 Servings
Chronmium Picolinate - 200mcg - 167%
Calcium Pyruvate - 4,000mg
Garcinia Cambogia Extract (std. to 60% Hydroxycitric Acid) - 750mg
L-Carnitine-L-Tartrate - 500mg
The Science Behind Trojan Horse The mechanism by which Trojan Horse works is multi-faceted. The first part of the mechanism involves the combination of hydroxycitrate (HCA) and L-carnitine. These two molecules synergistically work together to enhance the activity of the enzyme carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT), the rate limiting enzymatic step for transporting fatty acids into the mitochondria for beta oxidation (fat burning). HCA inhibits the production of malonyl CoA, an allosteric inhibitor of CPT. Carnitine is an essential cofactor for CPT activity and enhances ketogenesis.
During ketogenesis, more ADP is generated, which results in an increased electrochemical proton gradient for ATP synthase.
ATP synthase is responsible for the production of ATP and requires a high electrochemical gradient to work sufficiently.
Pyruvate is the end product of glycolysis, the breakdown of carbohydrates for energy. Pyruvate converts into acetyl CoA that enters the Krebs cycle, which generates the electron carriers NADH and FADH2. The molecules are necessary for the Electron Transport Chain (ETC), where your body produces ATP. Essentially, pyruvate converts into oxaloacetate in the body, which has high redox potential.
This is energetically favorable, so most of the oxaloacetate will be reduced to malate, which already exists in large quantities in the mitochondria. Pyruvate can be expected to catalyze the transfer of high-energy electrons from mitochondria to the cytosol. The resulting decrease in mitochondrial NADH should stimulate the Krebs cycle and promote reverse electron transport.
Reverse Electron transport is a process by which electrons are shuttled away from the ETC and into the cytosol, where they can re-enter the respiratory chain at the CoQ level. This process significantly disrupts the electrochemical proton gradient needed to generate ATP, effectively “uncoupling” the Krebs cycle and ETC. As a result, more energy is utilized in the process of making ATP, and the complete oxidation of fatty acids to CO2 is increased in an effort to get the necessary electrons needed to repair the electrochemical gradient.
Figure 1: Electron Chain Transport
Figure 1 shows the flow of electrons from glycolysis to the Krebs cycle, to the ECT. Notice the proton gradient denoted by a “+” in the intermembrane space, and a “-“ in the cytoplasm. This is the electrochemical gradient that is disrupted by the active ingredients in Trojan Horse, which causes your body to oxidize more fat in an attempt to recreate this electrochemical potential.